|Air traffic control||- Air Traffic Control|
How does it work?
Flightradar24.com shows live airplane traffic from different parts around the world. The technique to receive flight information from aircraft is called ADS-B. That means the Flightradar24.com can only show information about aircraft equipped with ADS-B transponders. Today about 60% of the passenger aircraft and only a small amount of military and private aircraft have an ADS-B transponder. Please read more below about which airplane models are visible on Flightradar24.com.
Where do you have coverage?
Flightradar24.com has a network of about 250 ADS-B receivers around the world that receives plane and flight information from aircraft with ADS-B and sends this information to a server, and then displays this information on a map on Flightradar24.com. Only aircraft within the coverage area of the 250 receivers are visible. Flightradar24.com covers about 90% of Europe. There is also some coverage in USA, Australia and Middle East.
What ADS-B receivers are there on the market and what is the cost to buy one?
The two most popular ADS-B receivers on the market are SBS-1 from Kinnetic Aviation and AirNav from Airnav Systems. The cost to buy a receiver is about 500 Euro. To get better coverage we recommend to buy an external antenna and place it as high as possible with 360 degrees clear site in all directions. The price for an antenna is about 100 Euro. Try to use as short antenna cable as possible or use a low-loss-cable to make the signal loss as small as possible. It's also possible to use an signal amplifier to make the signal stronger and increase coverage. The receiver needs to be connected to a computer to make it possible to see the air traffic.
What is the coverage area of an ADS-B receiver?
The coverage depends on many different things. The most important is that the antenna is placed with 360 degrees visibility, as high as possible above surrounding terrain. Normally the coverage is about 250-350 km in all directions, but it's possible to have up to about 450 km of coverage in good conditions with a signal amplifier.
Above and below from a presentation by Holger Matthiessent at:
From Presentation by Holger Matthiessent at:
In the UK, model aircraft and Unmanned Air Vehicles need to conform to regulations, such as the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) CAP 658 and the new CAP 722 issued on the 28 th April 2008.
DATE: 15 FEB 07
A review has been established to assess the feasibility of the new category says the regulator in a policy notice issued 13 February re-iterating its prohibition on the use of its AC 91-57 model aeroplane regulations as the basis of small UAV operations in US airspace.
The regulator has been under increased pressure from small UAV manufacturers and law enforcement agencies to allow flight operations in recent months.
The policy notice says that the proposed new category would cover “unmanned ‘vehicles’ that may be defined by the operator's visual line of sight and are also small and slow enough to adequately mitigate hazards to other aircraft and persons on the ground.”
Such a category “may be a new flight authorization instrument similar to AC 91-57, but focused on operations which do not qualify as sport and recreation, but also may not require a certificate of airworthiness.
“They will, however, require compliance with applicable FAA regulations and guidance developed for this category.”The US Federal Aviation Administration has flagged possible creation of a new category of regulations that would allow small unmanned air vehicles to operate under within visual line of sight rules, paving the way for easier airspace access for commercial users.
The FAA on Tuesday published a UAV policy to outline how these aircraft can be used in the National Airspace System. The rules vary depending if the UAV is operated as a public aircraft (operated by the government), a civil aircraft or a model. Public aircraft operate under individual Certificates of Waiver or Authorization (COAs), which are issued after an FAA review of the program and its safety protocols.
More than 50 COAs have been granted in the last two years, and a record number are expected for 2007. Civil aircraft must operate under experimental airworthiness certificates. Guidelines for operation of model aircraft are found in FAA Advisory Circular 91-57 . Such aircraft may only be used for sport, and not for commercial or business purposes, the FAA notes. More policy statements can be expected as the technology and its applications continue to develop.
Our thanks to Zeq Zaludin for providing us with a copy of this interesting document.
By Wes Carleton
While many technical obstacles must still be overcome before unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can enter civil controlled airspace, government and industry organisations are actively engaged in establishing national and international regulations for their eventual introduction. The November 2006 conference of UVS Canada, the Canadian UAV association, held in Montebello, Quebec, heard presentations from ICAO, the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Eurocontrol, joint government/industry specialist groups and other organisations on how the safe integration of UAVs could be achieved..
While there is much greater UAV activity in the US than elsewhere, there is a clear recognition within the worldwide civil aviation community that UAV activity is increasing rapidly, and that uniform standards should now be established. One financial industry forecast reported by Peter van Blyenburgh, of the Paris-based UVS International, predicted that the civil UAV market would reach EUR100 million (USD129.6 million) annually by 2010, increasing to EUR270 million after 2015.'
Two major government/industry groups - one in the US and the other in Europe - are developing UAV policy recommendations. In the US, this is being undertaken by RTCA Special Committee (SC) 203, which was established in 2004 and charged with developing preliminary civil aviation standards for generic Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS which includes airborne and ground elements), plus Command, Control and Communications (C3) and Detect, Sense and Avoid (DSA) technologies.
The European Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) organisation is a similar government/industry body, which established its Working Group (WG) 73 in January 2006, to review UAV operational aspects in European airspace. Chaired by a Eurocontrol official and with an FAA representative as its deputy chairman, WG-73 has parallel objectives to RTCA's SC-203, and both organisations are committed to harmonise their outputs. To that end, the two groups were to hold their first joint conference in Florida in January 2007, with the intention of holding further joint meetings on a regular basis.
From presentation by Colonel Langlois of the EDA at the Unmanned Systems Europe 2007 Conference in Cologne
The European Defence Agency was created in 2004. Colonel Maurice de Langlois, EDA Capability Manager for Engage and Protect Areas at the EDA, presented a view at the Unmanned Systems Europe 2007 Conference in Cologne, Germany on 8th May, 2007. According to Langlois, the first target of the EDA is to get military and state UAVs to fly in non-segregated air space by 2011. The next step is to get civilian UAVs to fly in non-segregated air space around 2013-2014. The EDA will fund a study to help define the efforts required to achieve these " ambitious" goals.
Above from a presentation by Ron van de Leijgraaf on " Certifying a rotary UAV in The Netherlands" at the UAV 2007 Conference in Paris.